Almost every anti-ageing cream and serum on the market contains the so-called hero active ingredient retinol.
It’s marketed as a wonder cure for many skin concerns and needs, but what is retinol and what does it actually do to the skin?
Put simply, retinol is a somewhat miracle molecule within the retinoid family that promises to minimise fine lines, combat blemishes and refine textured skin with continued use.
Retinoids have been championed by dermatologists and beauty experts for their blemish-busting properties since the 1970s when it was first introduced in acne treatments. Yet the multitasking molecule quickly proved itself to be a valuable addition to anti-ageing skincare.
It does come with some downsides though. To help you understand what retinol is and what it does, we’ve explained the science below. This is the latest in our ingredient explainers, having previously covered hyaluronic acid and Vitamin C.
You can also learn more in our the truth about the acids in your skincare
Retinols are members of the retinoid family which derive from a powerful molecular compound called Vitamin A.
Retinoids have stronger formulas which require a prescription and come in a gel or cream for easy application.
Most retinol products, on the other hand, come in serum form and are readily available over the counter.
Unsurprisingly, not all retinols are created equal. Retinol products use varying concentrations to treat the skin, ranging from 0.1% to 2% — the latter being the highest percentage you can get without a prescription.
Any skincare product that contains more than 0.25% has been clinically proven to be enough to reap the benefits of glowier skin yet it’s advised to start with a lower concentration for the skin to build up a tolerance.
You can read more on this in our side effects section further down.
This powerhouse ingredient accelerates skin renewal and boosts collagen production to plump out fine lines and wrinkles.
Retinol prevents pores from getting clogged with dead skin cells which in turn diminishes the risk of breakouts. Plus, since cells are constantly turning over, the use of retinol can help to fade acne scars, dark spots and hyperpigmentation.
But how does retinol work? Constant exposure to retinol increases the levels of retinoid receptors in our system.
These are proteins whose job is to carry and deposit Vitamin A into skin cells to stimulate collagen production. That equals maximised collagen and elastin for better hydration and tighter, plumper skin.
The best way to use retinol is slow and steady.
Gradually introduce a low concentration of retinol into your beauty regime to prevent skin irritation.
Use twice a week for the first month and then increase frequency when your skin has built up a tolerance. Once your skin has adjusted to daily usage you can begin to phase in a retinol with a stronger formulation.
Have a gander at our retinol rulebook for best results:
This is why, when we test retinol-based products (as well as skincare in general), we spend a minimum of four weeks using it in order to get true, real-world results. You can read more in our How we test skincare guide.
As with almost anything you put in or on your body, there are side effects but that doesn’t mean there’s any need to panic, we promise!
Everyone’s skin reacts differently to retinol but a small number of us may experience redness, dryness or flakiness. If this happens, simply limit your application to once a week, use a retinol with a low concentration and apply a hydrating moisturiser.
Any side effects will likely pass after a few weeks.
It’s also common for acne-prone skin to “purge” as the retinol turfs out the grime hiding in pores.
Remember these breakouts were inevitable and the molecule is only bringing them to the surface a little faster than usual. You’ll be on the road to clearer skin in no time.
Jade is a freelance beauty writer and copywriter from London. She has an extensive collection of hair masks, loves exploring new cities and sitting in the sunshine with an Aperol Spritz